What is WARN?
The Worker Readjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) is a law that requires employers to provide employees experiencing employment loss with a 60-day notice prior to a layoff, although some exceptions apply. The WARN protects workers, their families, and communities from the impact of mass layoffs.
Do I need to file a WARN?
You may need to file a WARN if you experience an event that triggers a WARN. Events that trigger a WARN might include mass layoffs, plant closings, or the sale of a business although some exceptions apply.
How do I file a WARN?
A WARN notice must be provided to either affected workers or their representatives (e.g. a labor union), to the State Dislocated Worker Unit, and to the appropriate unit of local government. No particular form of notice or record is required but the content of the WARN notification must be specific and in writing. Failure to provide adequate notice to employees may result in prosecution and penalties.
File a WARN
Use one of the following methods to file a WARN with the State of Colorado Dislocated Worker Unit.
By e-WARN using a google form that will guide you step by step through the process and ensure that you meet the federal and state filing requirements. Click here to begin.
By Email including the WARN separation details in an email or as a PDF attachment and emailing it to RRTeam@state.co.us. (PDF attachment is preferred.)
By Mail sending a Paper WARN letter to:
Colorado Department of Labor & Employment
Attention: WARN Coordinator, Karen Hoopes
633 17th st.
Denver, CO 80202
Note: In addition to notifying the State Dislocated Unit using one of the methods above, you will also need to notify your employees and the local elected official such as the mayor or the County Commissioner to satisfy state and federal requirements for WARN.
- WARN Details
"Law Governing WARN"]Public law 100-379 (29 U.S.C. 2101, et seq.) governs the WARN Act ‚Ä¢ The regulations appear at 20 CFR Part 639 ‚Ä¢ A guide to Advance Notice of Closings and Layoffs ‚Ä¢ The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act ‚Ä¢ The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) was enacted on August 4, 1988 and became effective on February 4, 1989
"Employer Coverage"]In general, employers are covered by WARN if they have 100 or more employees, not counting employees who have worked less than 6 months in the last 12 months and not counting employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week. Private, for-profit employers and private, nonprofit employers are covered, as are public and quasi-public entities which operate in a commercial context and are separately organized from the regular government. Regular Federal, State and local government entities, which provide public services, are not covered.
"Employee Coverage "]Employees entitled to notice under the WARN include hourly and salaried workers, as well as managerial and supervisory employees. Business partners are not entitled to notice.
"Employment Loss"] The term "employment loss" means: (1) An employment termination, other than a discharge for cause, voluntary departure, or retirement, (2) a layoff exceeding 6 months, or (3) a reduction in an employees‚Äô hours of work of more than 50% in each month of any 6 month period. Exceptions: An employee who refuses a transfer to a different employment site within reasonable commuting distance does not experience an employment loss. An employee, who accepts a transfer outside this distance within 30 days after it is offered or within 30 days after the plant closing or mass layoff, whichever is later, does not experience an employment loss. In both cases, the transfer offer must be made before the closing or layoff, there must be no more than a 6 month break in employment, and the new job must not be deemed a constructive discharge. These transfer exceptions from the "employment loss" definition apply only if the closing or layoff results from the relocation or consolidation of part or all of the employer\'s business.
"Notification Period"]With three exceptions, notice must be timed to reach the required parties at least 60 days before a closing or layoff. When the individual employment separations for a closing or layoff occur on more than one day, the notices are due to the representative(s), State dislocated worker unit and local government at least 60 days before each separation. If the workers are not represented, each worker\'s notice is due at least 60 days before that worker\'s separation. (1) Faltering company. This exception, to be narrowly construed, covers situations where a company has sought new capital or business in order to stay open and where giving notice would ruin the opportunity to get the new capital or business, and applies only to plant closings, (2) Unforeseeable business circumstances. This exception applies to closings and layoffs that are caused by business circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable at the time notice would otherwise have been required, and (3) Natural disaster. This applies where a closing or layoff is the direct result of a natural disaster, such as a flood, earthquake, drought or storm. If an employer provides less than 60 days, advance notice of a closing or layoff and relies on one of these three exceptions, the employer bears the burden of proof that the conditions for the exception have been met. The employer also must give as much notice as is practicable. When the notices are given, they must include a brief statement of the reason for reducing the notice period in addition to the items required in notices.
- What Triggers a WARN Notice
"Plant Closing: "]A covered employer must give notice if an employment site (or one or more facilities or operating units within an employment site) will be shut down, and the shutdown will result in an employment loss (as defined later) for 50 or more employees during any 30 day period. This does not count employees who have worked less than 6 months in the last 12 months or employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week for that employer. These latter groups, however, are entitled to notice (discussed later).
"Mass Layoff"]A covered employer must give notice if there is to be a mass layoff which does not result from a plant closing, but which will result in an employment loss at the employment site during any 30-day period for 500 or more employees, or for 50-499 employees if they make up at least 33% of the employer¬øs active workforce. Again, this does not count employees who have worked less than 6 months in the last 12 months or employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week for that employer. These latter groups, however, are entitled to notice (discussed later). An employer also must give notice if the number of employment losses which occur during a 30-day period fails to meet the threshold requirements of a plant closing or mass layoff, but the number of employment losses for 2 or more groups of workers, each of which is less than the minimum number needed to trigger notice, reaches the threshold level, during any 90-day period, of either a plant closing or mass layoff. Job losses within any 90-day period will count together toward the WARN threshold levels, unless the employer demonstrates that the employment losses during the 90-day period are the result of separate and distinct actions and causes.
"Sale of Businesses"] In a situation involving the sale of part or all of a business, the following requirements apply. (1) In each situation, there is always an employer responsible for giving notice. (2) If the sale by a covered employer results in a covered plant closing or mass layoff, the required parties (discussed later) must receive at least 60 days notice. (3) The seller is responsible for providing notice of any covered plant closing or mass layoff, which occurs up to, and including the date/time of the sale. (4) The buyer is responsible for providing notice of any covered plant closing or mass layoff, which occurs after the date/time of the sale. (5) No notice is required if the sale does not result in a covered plant closing or mass layoff. (6) Employees of the seller (other than employees who have worked less than 6 months in the last 12 months or employees who work an average of less than 20 hours a week) on the date/time of the sale become, for purposes of WARN, employees of the buyer immediately following the sale. This provision preserves the notice rights of the employees of a business that has been sold.
"Exceptions"] An employer does not need to give notice if a plant closing is the closing of a temporary facility, or if the closing or mass layoff is the result of the completion of a particular project or undertaking. This exemption applies only if the workers were hired with the understanding that their employment was limited to the duration of the facility, project or undertaking. An employer cannot label an ongoing project "temporary" in order to evade its obligations under WARN. An employer does not need to provide notice to strikers or to workers who are part of the bargaining unit(s) which are involved in the labor negotiations that led to a lockout when the strike or lockout is equivalent to a plant closing or mass layoff. Non-striking employees who experience an employment loss as a direct or indirect result of a strike and workers who are not part of the bargaining unit(s) which are involved in the labor negotiations that led to a lockout are still entitled to notice. An employer does not need to give notice when permanently replacing a person who is an "economic striker" as defined under the National Labor Relations Act.
- File a WARN
"Form and Content of Notice"] No particular form of notice is required. However, all notices must be in writing. Any reasonable method of delivery designed to ensure receipt 60 days before a closing or layoff is acceptable. Notice must be specific. Notice may be given conditionally upon the occurrence or nonoccurrence of an event only when the event is definite and its occurrence or nonoccurrence will result in a covered employment action less than 60 days after the event. The content of the notices to the required parties is listed in section 639.7 of the WARN final regulations. Additional notice is required when the date(s) or 14 day period(s) for a planned plant closing or mass layoff are extended beyond the date(s) or 14-day period(s) announced in the original notice.
"Records"]No particular form of record is required. The information employers will use to determine whether, to whom, and when they must give notice is information that employers usually keep in ordinary business practices and in complying with other laws and regulations.
"Penalties"]An employer who violates the WARN provisions by ordering a plant closing or mass layoff without providing appropriate notice is liable to each aggrieved employee for an amount including back pay and benefits for the period of violation, up to 60 days. The employer‚Äôs liability may be reduced by such items as wages paid by the employer to the employee during the period of the violation and voluntary and unconditional payments made by the employer to the employee. An employer who fails to provide notice as required to a unit of local government is subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $500 for each day of violation. This penalty may be avoided if the employer satisfies the liability to each aggrieved employee within 3 weeks after the closing or the employer orders layoff.
"Enforcement &, Prosecution"]Enforcement of WARN requirements is through the United States district courts. Workers, representatives of the employees and units of local government may bring individual or class action suits. In any suit, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party a reasonable attorney\'s fee as part of the costs.